Human TNF-Alpha

Introduction

Human TNF-α (Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha), also termed Cachectin, Cytotoxic Factor (CF), CTX, Hemorrhagic Factor, Macrophage-Derived Cytotoxic Factor, and Macrophage Cytotoxic Factor (MCF), is a potent multifunctional cytokine which can exert regulatory, inflammatory and cytotoxic effects on a wide range of normal lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells and tumor cells. TNF-α is produced by a wide variety of immune and epithelial cell types. TNF-α regulates lymphoid tissue development through control of apoptosis. It also promotes inflammatory responses by inducing the activation of vascular endothelial cells and macrophages. TNF-α is a key cytokine in the development of several inflammatory disorders. It contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes through its effects on insulin resistance and fatty acid metabolism.

Assay Overview

The workflow for the PuMA System cytokine immunoassay is shown in the figure below. All assay reagents are prepared in advance and then loaded into PuMA System flowchips using single or 8-channel pipettes. The wells are conveniently located on standard 384 multiwell plate spacings. The flowchips are now ready to be loaded into the PuMA System for “hands-off” processing. The ELISA steps are automatically performed by the system using pre-loaded protocols. Once the assay is complete, absorbance results are read on your Plate Reader.

  • Low-volume assays (10-20 μl)
  • Simple “hands-off” operation
  • Open platform – no expensive plates

Assay Procedure

The adaption of existing ELISA kits and/or antibody pairs is straightforward with the Pu•MA System. Assay buffers optimized for the Pu•MA System flowchips are provided for sample and antibody dilutions. Blocking solutions and wash buffers are also provided. The TNF-α assays are adapted from BioLegend ELISA Max Kits (p/n 430201, 4330202, & 430203).

Assay antibody reagents were prepared according to the dilutions shown in the Table using Pu•MA Assay Buffer (PAB). TNF-α standards were reconstituted according to instructions from BioLegend. A 1:2 serial dilution series of Human TNF-α Standard was prepared starting at 100 pg/well using PAB. 20 μl of each reagent was added to the appropriate wells (see Fig 3) except for the Stop Solution where 10 μl was dispensed. Four replicates were run per concentration. The flowchips were loaded into a Pu•MA System and processed using the TNF-α Assay Protocol. Plates were read within 5 minutes of being finished on an absorbance plate reader at 450 nm (Tecan Spectrafluor Plus).

Pu•MA System Human TNF-α Standard Curve

Pu•MA System ELISA

PuMA System ELISA

How It Works

The Pu•MA Flowchip and System uses established antibody pairs to perform an automated ELISA. All assay reagents are loaded into reservoirs and then moved one at a time through the “Assay Channel” by the Pu•MA System. Preloaded protocols execute all fluid transfer and incubation steps. The system incorporates patented valve-less fluidic switching (VLFS) to precisely control fluid movement in a flowchip. Use of microfluidics reduces
both incubation times and reagent volumes.

Name Reagent Source
Capture Ab Human TNF-α ELISA Max Capture
Antibody (1:25)
BL
Block Pu•MA Blocking Buffer PFI
Sample Human TNF-α Standard BL
1°Ab Human TNF-α ELISA Max Detection
Antibody (1:250)
BL
2°Ab Avidin-HRP (1:5K) BL
Wash Pu•MA Wash Buffer PFI
Substrate FAST Substrate PFI
Stop Pu•MA Stop Solution PFI

Microfluidic Assay Workflow

Schematic of PuMA system ELISA

PuMA System

Pu•MA System

  • Compact benchtop system
  • Easy top-loading of flowchips
  • Precision pneumatic control

PuMA System Software

Software

  • Touchscreen-driven interface
  • Preloaded assay protocols
  • Simple Select and Run operation

Reagents and Flowchips

Reagents & Flowchips

  • Validated immunoassays
  • Open platform for existing Ab pairs
  • Works with standard pipettors & tips